Plastic bottles are ubiquitous but the cost of producing them varies dramatically around the world, thanks mainly to differences in raw-material costs and energy prices. The main type of plastic used, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), is made from naphtha, an oil derivative, which can be partly substituted with ethane, a natural-gas derivative. Very little ethane is traded internationally, so only places where natural gas is cheap and abundant use it to make PET. Because of its shale-gas boom, these now include America as well as the Middle East. Europe and Asia rely only on expensive naphtha. In these places the higher cost of fuel and electricity also push up production costs for plastic bottles.
- …where etiquette, general knowledge and beauty are on the table.
- Some upcoming national pageants will take place in Nov and Dec [link]
- The event will be in Jan 2017
- the public get to vote between 80 candidates (presidential elections are a pale comparison…but then there is more depth)
- The Miss World competition is owned and managed by the Miss World Organization. Julia Morley (left) is its president. On the other hand, the Miss Universe pageant is run by the Miss Universe Organization, which is currently owned by business tycoon Donald Trump in a joint venture with broadcaster NBC.